Using the COL Checklist

Accessing and citing the Checklist

Gillmeria ochrodactyla ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775) - Photo CC By Donald Hobern

This page provides guidance on how to use the content included in the COL Checklist, including API access, and on the importance of properly citing the data.

Ways to access the COL Checklist

The Catalogue of Life Checklist is constantly evolving through monthly updates. Persistent name identifiers will enable the user to track changes in scientific names. Every year, COL produces an annual version of the COL Checklist that receives long-term support and becomes part of the yearly archives. Monthly COL Checklists released between annual editions may not be kept indefinitely. These lose support once an annual COL Checklist is issued.

The latest version of the COL Checklist can always be accessed through the COL website through the Browse and Search tools and through the application programming interface (API). Historic annual COL Checklists can be accessed through web services, Darwin Core Archive downloads, and MySQL dumps.

Browsing the COL Checklist offers an intuitive way to explore the Catalogue of Life, providing a visual perspective on the diversity of organisms that are included. Starting from the highest level of the taxonomic hierarchy (the kingdom), it is possible to:

  • Expand the next level of the tree using the button to show taxa included within each group
  • Continue working down the tree to locate a species or other taxon (the tree only shows the accepted names)
  • Click on the name of any species or other taxon to access the relevant details page
  • Expand multiple branches of the hierarchy to visualise relationships between taxa
  • Use the Find taxon search field to go directly to a named taxon in the tree (including synonyms as well as accepted names)

Alternatively, the Search function supports searching by name for any species or taxon in the COL Checklist:

  • The input search text box supports taxon names or any other attribute parts of the name, such as author name or year. Searches are case-insensitive. Names matching the search term are returned below.
  • The higher taxon box adds a filter to return only names from within the selected group. This returns a full list of matching scientific names, including synonyms and higher ranks.
  • Results can be ordered by Status (accepted/synonym) or Rank
  • Further filters are available for Rank and Status or (under Advanced) for Nomenclatural status or Name type
  • Also under Advanced, the Name field option allows searches to be narrowed to particular parts of the name (e.g. genus, specific epithet or nomenclatural code)

Once a taxon has been found by either route, more information is available on the taxon details page. Information available may include:

  • Name: the complete scientific name for the species, including authorship
  • Checklist status: current status of the name
  • Synonyms: a list of synonyms for a species or taxon
  • Classification: a list showing each of the higher taxa within which this species is included within the consensus taxonomy established for the Catalogue of Life
  • Vernacular names: a list of common names for the species
  • Distribution (if available): a list of regions and countries in which the species is recorded
  • Environment (if available): in which the species is known to occur, e.g. marine, freshwater, terrestrial
  • Source database: link to the page that describes the source database for the species record.
  • Link to original resource (if available): this links to the corresponding species page in the original resource

COL API

The dynamic COL Checklist can be accessed through the JSON-based COL ChecklistBank API. The API is still under active development and not finalized, so small changes are still expected to take place before the release of version 1.0. Authentication is via GBIF user accounts. Datasets in the ChecklistBank are accessible through dataset keys. The latest version of the COL Checklist can always be accessed through the dataset Key 3LR. More information on the new COL ChecklistBank will follow soon.

Downloads

Historical versions of the annual COL Checklist (2005 - 2019) can be accessed under previous versions. Darwin Core Archives of historic annual COL Checklists (2012-2019) and/or MySQL dumps (2005-2019) can also be downloaded from here.

Deprecated legacy API

To facilitate a smooth change-over to the new Catalogue of Life infrastructure, the deprecated legacy API for the dynamic monthly COL Checklists will remain available for some period. However, we strongly recommend users to switch over to the new COL ChecklistBank API as soon as possible.

Data formats

Catalogue of Life Data Package

For the new Catalogue of Life, the recommended exchange format for submitting data to and downloading data from the COL ChecklistBank is the Catalogue of Life Data Package (ColDP), a tabular text format with a standard set of files and columns and it is inspired by Frictionless Data. The format is a single ZIP archive that bundles various delimited text files:

A metadata.yaml file should also be included to provide basic metadata about the entire dataset. For sharing structured bibliographic references the BibTex and CSL-JSON format is also supported.

The ColDP format was developed to overcome limitations in existing formats for sharing taxonomic information, particularly Darwin Core Archives and the Annual Checklist Exchange Format used previously in COL. Darwin Core Archives and ACEF are still supported for data exchange to and from the Catalogue of Life ChecklistBank, but the ColDP format supports a wider range of features.

Darwin Core Archive

Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A) is a standard for biodiversity informatics data that makes use of the Darwin Core terms to produce a single, self-contained dataset for sharing species-level (checklist) data, species-occurrence data or sampling-event data. Each archive contains a set of text files, in standard comma- or tab-delimited format, along with a simple descriptor file (meta.xml) to document how the files are organised. The format is defined in the Darwin Core Text Guidelines (GBIF 2017).

Darwin Core Archives may include one or many data files, depending on the scope of the dataset published. As a minimum, they should include a required core data file with values for a standard set of Darwin Core terms. For checklist data, each record should include an identifier supplied as dwc:taxonID. The definitive list of core Taxon terms can be found in the Darwin Core Taxon Extension. For more information about preparation of a DwC-A, please refer to the GBIF DwC-A How-to Guide.

COL ChecklistBank currently interprets the following DwC extensions:

Data from all other DwC extensions is available via the verbatim browser though.

Annual Checklist Exchange Format

The previous data format used by COL, the Annual Checklist Exchange Format (ACEF), can still be used to submit data, although the new ColDP format is recommended. The ACEF format includes several tables with pre-defined fields (list of tables and fields, entity relationship diagram). Version 4 from 29 September 2014 is the latest release.

TextTree

TextTree is a simple format to represent taxonomic trees using indented, plain text. Each row in a TextTree represent a scientific name. Each name can include the authorship and should be given a rank following the name in angular brackets. Synonyms are represented as direct, nested children that are prefixed by a * asterisk. The format focuses on the tree, is very human readable and lightweight. COL ChecklistBank archives every version of imported datasets as TextTree files which then drives various diff tools.

Excel

COL ChecklistBank supports the upload and download of Excel spreadsheets as a variant for the ColDP and DwC-A formats. Worksheets with a header row are used instead of CSV files to represent a single entity like Taxon or VernacularName.

Excel restricts the maximum amount of records to just above 1 million, so spreadsheets cannot be used to download the entire COL checklist.

Citing the COL Checklist and data from ChecklistBank

COL’s goal is to make sure that the COL Checklist and all content published through ChecklistBank have stable web identifiers and can easily be cited. To support this aim, COL is moving to DOI-based citation tools for all checklist datasets. This work is still under development as of November 2020. In the meantime, please cite COL and its contributors using the recommended citations listed further down on this page.

The future model for citing COL will include the following features:

  • Every checklist in ChecklistBank will receive its own Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
  • Each version of the COL Checklist will have its own DOI. The information shared for each version includes citation of all contributing sector checklists and other sources contributing content.
  • Every name in every checklist in ChecklistBank will also have its own unique identifier and can be cited directly.
  • Every name in each version of the COL Checklist will have its own unique identifier that links to the corresponding record in a source checklist. COL will as far as possible maintain the stability of these identifiers between different versions.

Once these identifiers are in place, it is strongly recommended that users adopt them for citations in all publications and other uses of COL data. Monitoring use of these DOIs will enable COL to demonstrate the importance both of taxonomic research and of the work needed to build the Checklist itself. Usage information from DOI citations will be included as part of the metadata for each checklist version and each contributing dataset. This will allow COL to report usage (including references inside publications) more accurately to the data contributors of the content, making it easier for them to highlight the importance of maintaining these datasets.

Please use the following recommended citation for the current version of the COL Checklist:

<div class="csl-entry">Catalogue of Life, [author list in alphabetical order]. (2021). Catalogue of Life - June 2021 (Version 2021-06-10) [Data set]. https://www.catalogueoflife.org</div>

Please use the following recommended citations for the individual datasets contributing to the COL Checklist:

Dmitriev, D., Sanborn, A., & Takiya, D. (2017). World Auchenorrhyncha Database (Nov 2017) [Data set]. http://dmitriev.speciesfile.org/3i.asp

3i taxonomic databases, Curculionidae, subfamily Entiminae (Jan 2019). (2018). http://dmitriev.speciesfile.org/3i.asp

Hobern, D., & Gielis, C. (2021). Catalogue of the Alucitoidea of the World (1.0.2148 (17 Feb 2021) [Data set]. https://alucitoidea.hobern.net/

Zhang, Z. Q. (2013). An Outline of Higher-level Classification and Survey of Taxonomic Richness (Addenda 2013) (Version 2013) [Data set]. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/list/2013/3703%281%29.html

Rainer H. & Chatrou L.W., (. (2014). Annonaceae GSD (Jan 2014) [Data set]. http://herbarium.botanik.univie.ac.at/

Den Heyer, J., & Hernandes, F. A. (2013). Bdellid & Cunaxid Databases (Feb 2013) [Data set].

Francis, A., Lujan-Toro, B. E., Warwick, S., Macklin, J. A., & Martin, S. L. (2021). Update on the Brassicaceae Species Checklist (J. A. Macklin, Ed.; ) [Data set].

Sforzi, A., Bartolozzi, L., Cianferoni, F., & Zinetti, F. (2019). Brentidae of the World (Feb 2019) [Data set]. http://rameau.snv.jussieu.fr/brentidae/

Oosterbroek, P. (2021). Catalogue of Craneflies of the World (May 2021) [Data set]. https://ccw.naturalis.nl/

Soulier-Perkins, A. (2019). Cercopoidea Organised On Line (Feb 2019) [Data set]. http://rameau.snv.jussieu.fr/cool/

Lorenz, W. (2017). Global database of ground beetles (Oct 2017) [Data set]. http://www.carabidfauna2.net

A World Catalogue of Centipedes (Chilopoda) for the Web (1.01, May 2006). (2006). http://chilobase.bio.unipd.it

Aescht, E. (2012). The World Ciliate Catalog (4.0, Jan 2012) [Data set]. http://www.zobodat.at

Bellinger, P. F., Christiansen, K. A., & Janssens, F. (2020). Checklist of the Collembola of the World (Apr 2020) [Data set]. https://www.collembola.org

Farjon, A., Gardner, M., & Thomas, P. (2014). Conifer Database (Jan 2014) [Data set].

Culham, A., & Yesson, C. (2009). Droseraceae Database (0.1, Dec 2008) [Data set].

Söderström, L., Hagborg, A., & von Konrat, M. (2019). Early Land Plants Today (Jan 2019) [Data set]. http://www.elpt.org

Kotov, A., Forró, L., Korovchinsky, N. M., & Petrusek, A. (2013). World checklist of freshwater Cladocera species (Jan 2013) [Data set]. https://web.archive.org/web/20180320182811/http%3A//fada.biodiversity.be/group/show/17

Barber-James, H., Sartori, M., Gattolliat J.-L., & Webb, J. (2013). World checklist of freshwater Ephemeroptera species (Feb 2013) [Data set]. https://web.archive.org/web/20181204102127/http%3A//fada.biodiversity.be/group/show/35

Bartsch, I. (2013). World checklist of freshwater Halacaridae species (Jan 2013) [Data set]. https://web.archive.org/web/20180320182831/http%3A//fada.biodiversity.be/group/show/32

Schmidt-Rhaesa, A. (2010). World checklist of freshwater Nematomorpha species (Dec 2010) [Data set]. https://web.archive.org/web/20180320182846/http%3A//fada.biodiversity.be/group/show/7

Segers, H. (2012). Annotated checklist of the rotifers (Phylum Rotifera) (May 2012) [Data set]. https://web.archive.org/web/20180623061106/http%3A//fada.biodiversity.be/group/show/4

Bourgoin, T. (2020). Fulgoromorpha Lists On the Web (Version 8) [Data set]. http://hemiptera-databases.org/flow/

Froese, R., & Pauly, D. (2018). FishBase (Feb 2018) [Data set]. http://www.fishbase.org

Kvaček, J. (2018). Fossil Ginkgoales (Dec 2018) [Data set]. http://www.nm.cz

Häuser, C., Holstein, J., Kroupa, A. S., Steiner, A., & Turiault, M. (2013). Global Butterfly Information System (Sep 2013) [Data set]. http://www.globis.insects-online.de/

De Prins, J., & De Prins, W. (2011). Global Taxonomic Database of Gracillariidae (Jan 2011) [Data set]. http://www.gracillariidae.net

Thessen, A. (2017). The dinoflagellate genus Gymnodinium checklist (0.1) [Data set]. https://github.com/diatomsRcool/gymnodiniales

Kroupa, A. S., Lohrmann, V., Pulawski, W. J., & Schmid-Egger, C. (2017). Hymenoptera Information System (Jul 2017) [Data set]. http://www.hymis.net/

Kroupa A.S., & Schmid-Egger C. (2019). Hymenoptera Information System, Pompilidae of the World (Version 2019-09) [Data set]. http://www.hymis.net/

Davison, A. J., Siddell, S., Mushegian, A., Walker, P. J., Lefkowitz, E. J., Adriaenssens, E., Harrach, B., Kuhn, J. H., Knowles, N. J., Simmonds, P., Zerbini, F. M., Dutilh, B., Harrison, R., Junglen, S., Krupovic, M., Nibert, M. L., Rubino, L., Sabanadzovic, S., & Varsani, A. (2020). ICTV Master Species List (Version MSL35, 2019, v1) [Data set]. https://talk.ictvonline.org/taxonomy/w/ictv-taxonomy

Roskov, Y., Bisby, F., Zarucchi, J., & Novoselova, M. (2014). World Database of Legumes (12, May 2014) [Data set].

Rees, T. (. (2019). The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera (Version 2019-03) [Data set]. http://www.irmng.org/

ITIS. (2021). The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (Version 2021-05-26) [Data set]. https://itis.gov

Bellamy, C. L. (. (2014). The World of Jewel Beetles (Aug 2014) [Data set]. https://cerambycids.com/buprestidae/index.html

Oswald, J. D. (2018). Neuropterida Species of the World (Jul 2018) [Data set]. http://lacewing.tamu.edu/SpeciesCatalog/Main

Guilbert, E. (2019). Lace Bugs Database (Hemiptera: Tingidae) (Feb 2019) [Data set]. http://hemiptera-databases.com/tingidae/

Beccaloni, G., Scoble, M., Kitching, I., Simonsen, T., Robinson, G., Pitkin, B., Hine, A., & Lyal, C. (2012). The Global Lepidoptera Names Index (12.3, Jan 2012) [Data set].

Burckhardt, D. (2009). Moss Bug Base (1.0, Sep 2009) [Data set]. http://rameau.snv.jussieu.fr/cgi-bin/coleorrhyncha.pl

Crosby, M. R., & Magill, R. (2004). Moss TROPICOS Database (1, Jul 2004) [Data set]. http://www.mobot.org/mobot/tropicos/most/checklist.shtml

McKamey, S. (2010). Membracoidea of the World Database (1011, Nov 2010) [Data set].

Kirk, P. M. (2015). Unicellular spore-forming protozoan parasites (Nov 2015) [Data set]. http://www.speciesfungorum.org

Castilho, R. C., Silva, E. S., & Moraes G.J. de. (2009). Mites GSD Ologamasidae (Oct 2009) [Data set].

Castilho, R. C., Narita, J. P. Z., Moraes G.J. de, & McMurtry, J. A. (2009). Mites GSD Phytoseiidae (Sep 2009) [Data set]. http://www.lea.esalq.usp.br/phytoseiidae/

Castilho, R. C., & Moraes G.J. de. (2009). Mites GSD Rhodacaridae (Oct 2009) [Data set].

Mesa, N. C., Ochoa, R., Welbourn, W. C., Evans, G. A., Castilho, R. C., & Moraes G.J. de. (2009). Mites GSD Tenuipalpidae (Nov 2009) [Data set].

van Nieukerken, E. J. (2016). Nepticulidae and Opostegidae of the World (Oct 2016) [Data set]. http://nepticuloidea.info

Tol J. van. (2011). Global Species Database of Odonata (Dec 2011) [Data set]. https://web.archive.org/web/20120701124136/http%3A//www.odonata.info:80/odonata/odonata/tree.html

Schuh, R. T. (2016). On-line Systematic Catalog of Plant Bugs (Insecta: Heteroptera: Miridae) (Mar 2013) [Data set]. http://research.amnh.org/pbi/index.html

Paleobiology Database contributors. (2018). The Paleobiology Database (Feb 2018) [Data set]. https://paleobiodb.org

Medvedev, S., Lobanov, A., & Lyangouzov, I. (2005). Parhost World Database of Fleas (2, Nov 2005) [Data set]. http://www.zin.ru/Animalia/Siphonaptera

Emig, C. C. (2016). Phoronida Database (Feb 2016) [Data set]. http://paleopolis.rediris.es/Phoronida_database/index.html

Ouvrard, D. (2019). Psylloidea database (Feb 2019) [Data set]. http://www.hemiptera-databases.org/psyllist

Hobern, D., & Gielis, C. (2021). Catalogue of the Pterophoroidea of the World (1.1.21138 (18 May 2021) [Data set].

Aedo, C. (2017). Geranium Taxonomic Information System (Sep 2017) [Data set]. http://www.geranium.es/

Uetz, P., & Hošek, J. (2021). The Reptile Database (Version 2020-12) [Data set]. http://www.reptile-database.org

Favret, C. (2018). Aphid Species File (5.0, Jun 2018) [Data set]. http://aphid.speciesfile.org

Baker, E. (2018). Chrysididae Species File (5.0, Jun 2018) [Data set]. http://chrysididae.speciesfile.org

Beccaloni, G. W. (2018). Cockroach Species File (5.0, Jun 2018) [Data set]. http://Cockroach.speciesfile.org

Heads, S. W., & Maehr, M. D. (2018). Coleorrhyncha Species File (5.0, Jun 2018) [Data set]. http://coleorrhyncha.speciesfile.org

CoreoideaSF Team. (2018). Coreoidea Species File (5.0, Jun 2018) [Data set]. http://Coreoidea.SpeciesFile.org

Hopkins, H., Maehr, M. D., Haas, F., & Deem, L. S. (2018). Dermaptera Species File (5.0, Jun 2018) [Data set]. http://Dermaptera.speciesfile.org

Maehr, M. D. (2018). Embioptera Species File (5.0, Jun 2018) [Data set]. http://embioptera.speciesfile.org

Hopkins, H., & Maehr, M. D. (2018). Grylloblattodea Species File (5.0, Jun 2018) [Data set]. http://grylloblattodea.speciesfile.org

South E.J. after Krishna K., Grimaldi, D. A., Krishna, V., & Engel, M. S. (2018). Isoptera Species File (Jan 2018) [Data set].

Dellapé, P. M., & Henry, T. J. (2018). Lygaeoidea Species File (5.0, Jun 2018) [Data set]. http://Lygaeoidea.speciesfile.org

Otte, D., Spearman, L., & Stiewe, M. B. D. (2018). Mantodea Species File (5.0/5.0, Jun 2018) [Data set]. http://mantodea.speciesfile.org

Maehr, M. D., & Hopkins, H. (2018). Mantophasmatodea Species File (5.0, Jun 2018) [Data set]. http://mantophasmatodea.speciesfile.org

Cigliano, M. M., Braun, H., Eades, D. C., & Otte, D. (2018). Orthoptera Species File (5.0, Jun 2018) [Data set]. http://Orthoptera.SpeciesFile.org

Brock, P. D., Büscher, T., Baker, E., & Otte, D. (2018). Phasmida Species File (5.0, Jun 2018) [Data set]. http://phasmida.speciesfile.org

DeWalt, R. E., Maehr, M. D., Neu-Becker, U., & Stueber, G. (2018). Plecoptera Species File (5.0, Jun 2018) [Data set]. http://plecoptera.speciesfile.org

Johnson, K. P., Smith, V. S., Hopkins, H., & Eades, D. C. (2018). Psocodea Species File (5.0, Jun 2018) [Data set]. http://psocodea.speciesfile.org

Maehr, M. D., & Hopkins, H. (2018). Zoraptera Species File (5.0, Jun 2018) [Data set]. http://zoraptera.speciesfile.org

Ben-Dov, Y., & Miller, D. R. (2004). Systematic Database of the Scale Insects of the World (Dec 2004) [Data set]. http://scalenet.info/catalogue/

Schoolmeesters, P. (2021). World Scarabaeidae Database (Version 2021-06-01) [Data set].

Kamiński, M. J., Kanda, K., Lumen, R., Ulmer, J. M., Wirth, C. C., Bouchard, P., Aalbu, R., Mal, N., & Smith, A. (2019). World catalogue of the tribe Sepidiini (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera) (Version 22, 2019-04) [Data set]. https://zookeys.pensoft.net/article/34241/

Kirk, P. M. (2020). Species Fungorum for CoL+ (Feb 2020) [Data set]. http://www.speciesfungorum.org

Migeon, A., & Dorkeld, F. (2011). Spider Mites Web (Jul 2011) [Data set]. http://www1.montpellier.inra.fr/CBGP/spmweb/

Newton, A. F. (2018). Staphyliniformia world catalog database (Nov 2018) [Data set]. http://archive.fieldmuseum.org/peet_staph

Kathirithamby, J. (2017). Global Strepsiptera Database (May 2017) [Data set]. http://rameau.snv.jussieu.fr/cgi-bin/strepsiptera.pl

Evenhuis, N. L., & Pape, T. (2021). Systema Dipterorum (3.1, May 2021) [Data set]. http://diptera.org

Tavakilian, G., & Chevillotte, H. (2015). Cerambycidae database (Apr 2015) [Data set]. http://titan.gbif.fr/

Yu, D. S. K. (2009). Taxapad Ichneumonoidea (May 2009) [Data set]. https://web.archive.org/web/20180906195542/http%3A//www.ichneumonoidea.name

Magnien, P. (2019). Illustrated catalog of Tessaratomidae (Feb 2019) [Data set]. http://hemiptera-databases.com/tessaratomidae/

Rein, J. O. (2020). The Scorpion Files (Aug 2020) [Data set]. http://www.ntnu.no/ub/scorpion-files

Ouvrard, D., & Martin, J. H. (2019). Taxonomic checklist of the world’s whiteflies (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) (Feb 2019) [Data set]. http://www.hemiptera-databases.com/whiteflies/

Calonje, M., Stevenson, D. W., & Osborne, R. (2019). The World List of Cycads, online edition (Feb 2019) [Data set]. http://cycadlist.org

ThripsWiki. (2020). Providing information on the World’s thrips (Sep 2020) [Data set]. https://thrips.info

Nijhof, A. M., Guglielmone, A. A., & Horak, I. G. (2005). TicksBase (5.6, Jun 2005) [Data set].

Robinson, G. S. (. (2011). Global taxonomic database of Tineidae (Lepidoptera) (9.0, Nov 2011) [Data set]. https://web.archive.org/web/20160805065355/http%3A//www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/research/projects/tineidae/index.html

Lichtwardt, R. W. (2017). Fungi Associated with Arthropods (Oct 2017) [Data set]. http://www.nhm.ku.edu/~fungi/

Noyes, J. (2007). Universal Chalcidoidea Database (Sep 2007) [Data set]. https://www.nhm.ac.uk/our-science/data/chalcidoids/

Kury, A. B., Mendes, A. C., Cardoso, L., Kury, M. S., Granado, A. d. A., Giribet, G., Cruz-López, J. A., & Longhorn, S. J. (2021). World Catalogue of Opiliones (Version 2021-03-23) [Data set]. https://wcolite.com

Govaerts, R. (2017). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (Aug 2017) [Data set]. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Kropf, C., Nentwig, W., Blick, T., & Gloor, D. (. B. (2019). World Spider Catalog (Version 20) [Data set]. https://wsc.nmbe.ch/

Alonso-Zarazaga, M. A., & Lyal, C. H. C. (2021). Electronic Catalogue of Weevil names (Curculionoidea) (Version 19, 2020-11-25) [Data set]. http://wtaxa.csic.es

Maslin, B. (2018). World Wide Wattle (2, Jan 2018) [Data set]. http://www.worldwidewattle.com

Daly, M., & Fautin, D. (2021). World List of Actiniaria (D. Fautin, Ed.; ver. (06/2021) [Data set]. http://www.marinespecies.org

Horton, T., Lowry, J., De Broyer, C., Bellan-Santini, D., Coleman, C. O., Corbari, L., Costello, M. J., Daneliya, M., Dauvin, J.-C., Fišer, C., Gasca, R., Grabowski, M., Guerra-García, J. M., Hendrycks, E., Hughes, L., Jaume, D., Jazdzewski, K., Kim, Y.-H., King, R., et al. (2021). World Amphipoda Database (D. Bellan-Santini, C. O. Coleman, L. Corbari, M. Costello, M. Daneliya, J.-C. Dauvin, C. De Broyer, C. Fišer, R. Gasca, M. Grabowski, J. M. Guerra-García, E. Hendrycks, T. Horton, L. Hughes, D. Jaume, K. Jazdzewski, Y.-H. Kim, R. King, T. Krapp-Schickel, et al., Eds.; ver. (06/2021) [Data set]. http://www.marinespecies.org/amphipoda

Molodtsova, T., & Opresko, D. (2021). World List of Antipatharia (, Ed.; ver. (06/2021) [Data set]. http://www.marinespecies.org

Hopcroft, R. (2021). World List of Appendicularia (, Ed.; ver. (06/2021) [Data set]. http://www.marinespecies.org

Shenkar, N., Gittenberger, A., Lambert, G., Rius, M., Moreira da Rocha, R., Swalla, B. J., & Turon, X. (2021). Ascidiacea World Database (A. Gittenberger, G. Lambert, R. Moreira da Rocha, M. Rius, N. Shenkar, B. Swalla, & X. Turon, Eds.; ver. (06/2021) [Data set]. http://www.marinespecies.org/ascidiacea

Mah, C. L. (2021). World Asteroidea Database (C. Mah, Ed.; ver. (06/2021) [Data set]. http://www.marinespecies.org/asteroidea

Boxshall, G. A. (2021). World List of Bochusacea (, Ed.; ver. (06/2021) [Data set]. http://www.marinespecies.org

Boxshall, G. A. (2021). World List of Brachypoda (, Ed.; ver. (06/2021) [Data set]. http://www.marinespecies.org

Ng, P. K. L. & Davie, P. (2021). World List of marine Brachyura (, Ed.; ver. (06/2021) [Data set]. http://www.marinespecies.org

Bock, P., & Gordon, D. (2021). World List of Bryozoa (P. Bock, Ed.; ver. (06/2021) [Data set]. http://www.marinespecies.org

Nishikawa, T. (2021). World List of Cephalochordata (, Ed.; ver. (06/2021) [Data set]. http://www.marinespecies.org

Molodtsova, T. (2021). World List of Ceriantharia (, Ed.; ver. (06/2021) [Data set]. http://www.marinespecies.org

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Kroh, A., & Mooi, R. (2021). World Echinoidea Database (A. Kroh, R. Mooi, & T. Saucède, Eds.; ver. (06/2021) [Data set]. http://www.marinespecies.org/echinoidea

Hayward, B. W., Le Coze, F., Vachard, D., & Gross, O. (2021). World Foraminifera Database (S. C. d. Encarnação, O. Gross, B. W. Hayward, F. Le Coze, B. Mamo, & D. Vachard, Eds.; ver. (06/2021) [Data set]. http://www.marinespecies.org/foraminifera

Todaro, A., & d’Hondt, J-L. & Hummon, W. (2021). World Gastrotricha Database (, Ed.; ver. (06/2021) [Data set]. http://www.marinespecies.org

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MolluscaBase eds. (2021). MolluscaBase (K. Auffenberg, R. Bank, R. Bieler, P. Bouchet, M. Faber, J. Finn, O. Garcia-Alvarez, S. Gofas, D. Herbert, R. Houart, R. Janssen, A. Kabat, Y. Kantor, F. Köhler, B. Marshall, T. A. Neubauer, E. Neubert, B. Páll-Gergely, B. Picton, et al., Eds.; ver. (06/2021) [Data set]. http://www.molluscabase.org

Gibson, D., & Bray, R. (2021). World List of Monogenea (, Ed.; ver. (06/2021) [Data set]. http://www.marinespecies.org

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Adlard, R., & Feist, S. & Longshaw, M. (2021). World List of Myxozoa (, Ed.; ver. (06/2021) [Data set]. http://www.marinespecies.org

Bezerra, T. N., Eisendle, U., Hodda, M., Holovachov, O., Leduc, D., Mokievsky, V., Peña Santiago, R., Sharma, J., Smol, N., Tchesunov, A., Venekey, V., Zhao, Z., & Vanreusel, A. (2021). Nemys: World Database of Nematodes (ver. (05/2021) [Data set]. http://nemys.ugent.be

Norenburg, J., Gibson, R., Herrera Bachiller, A., & Strand, M. (2021). World Nemertea Database (R. Gibson, A. Herrera Bachiller, J. Norenburg, & M. Strand, Eds.; ver. (06/2021) [Data set]. http://www.marinespecies.org/nemertea

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Lazarus, D. (2021). World List of Polycystina (Radiolaria) (, Ed.; ver. (06/2021) [Data set]. http://www.marinespecies.org

Van Soest, R. W. M., Boury-Esnault, N., Hooper, J. N. A., Rützler, K., de Voogd, N. J., Alvarez, B., Hajdu, E., Pisera, A. B., Manconi, R., Schönberg, C., Klautau, M., Kelly, M., Vacelet, J., Dohrmann, M., Díaz, M.-C., Cárdenas, P., Carballo, J. L., Ríos, P., Downey, R., & Morrow, C. C. (2021). World Porifera Database (B. Alvarez, N. Boury-Esnault, J. L. Carballo, P. Cárdenas, N. de Voogd, M.-C. Díaz, M. Dohrmann, R. Downey, E. Hajdu, J. Hooper, M. Kelly, M. Klautau, R. Manconi, C. Morrow, A. Pisera, P. Ríos, K. Rützler, C. Schönberg, J. Vacelet, & R. van Soest, Eds.; ver. (06/2021) [Data set]. http://www.marinespecies.org/porifera

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Koenemann, S., Hoenemann, M., & Stemme, T. (2021). World Remipedia Database (M. Hoenemann, S. Koenemann, & T. Stemme, Eds.; ver. (06/2021) [Data set]. http://www.marinespecies.org/remipedia

Catalano, S. (. (2021). World List of Rhombozoa (, Ed.; ver. (06/2021) [Data set]. http://www.marinespecies.org

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Collins, A. G., Jarms, G., & Morandini, A. C. (2021). World List of Scyphozoa (, Ed.; ver. (06/2021) [Data set]. http://www.marinespecies.org

Collins, A. G., & Jarms, G. (2021). World List of Staurozoa (, Ed.; ver. (06/2021) [Data set]. http://www.marinespecies.org

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Artois, T., Bush, L., Hooge, M., Schilling, S., & Tyler, S. (2021). World List of turbellarian worms: Acoelomorpha, Catenulida, Rhabditophora (ver. (06/2021) [Data set]. http://www.marinespecies.org/turbellarians

Gofas, S. (2021). World List of Xenoturbellida (, Ed.; ver. (06/2021) [Data set]. http://www.marinespecies.org

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Hassler, M. (2021). Checklist of Ferns and Lycophytes of the World (Version 2021-03-02) [Data set]. https://www.worldplants.de

Hassler, M. (2021). Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World (Version 2021-03-17) [Data set]. https://www.worldplants.de

Gusenleitner, J. (2011). Zoological-Botanical Database (Vespoidea) (4.0, Oct 2011) [Data set]. http://www.zobodat.at

Lado, C., & Hernández-Crespo, J. C. (2021). Nomenclatural Database of Eumycetozoa (Myxomycota) (Version 2021-04) [Data set]. https://eumycetozoa.com