2011 Annual Checklist DVD front cover The Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist contains contributions from 99 databases with information on 1,347,224 species and 92,306 infraspecific taxa, and also includes 895,441 synonyms and 366,401 common names covering the following groups:

Viruses • Viruses and Subviral agents from ICTV_MSL

Bacteria and Archaea from BIOS • Blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria) from AlgaeBase

Chromista • Chromistan fungi from Species Fungorum • Chromistan algae from AlgaeBase

Protozoa • Major groups from ITIS and AlgaeBase • Protozoan fungi from Species Fungorum and Trichomycetes database • Slime moulds from Nomen.eumycetozoa.com

Fungi • Various taxa in whole or in part from CABI Bioservices databases (Species Fungorum, Phyllachorales, Rhytismatales, Saccharomycetes NEW! and Zygomycetes databases) and from three other databases covering Xylariaceae, Glomeromycota, Trichomycetes, Dothideomycetes NEW! Lichens from LIAS NEW!

Plantae (Plants) • Mosses from MOST • Liverworts and hornworts from ELPT • Conifers from Conifer Database • Cycads and 6 flowering plant families from IOPI-GPC and 99 families from WCSP • Plus individual groups: Brazil Nut family (LecyPages), Cranesbills (RJB Geranium), Crucifers (Brassicaceae), Custard Apple family (AnnonBase), Legume family (ILDIS), Nightshade genus (Solanaceae Source), Sundew family (Droseraceae Database), Sunflower family (GCC) and Waits Numi family (LHD)

Animalia (Animals) • Sponges, freeliving flatworms, ribbon worms, marine oligochaetes, bristle worms, remipedes, brachypods, cumaceans, pillbugs, slaters, woodlice, bryozoans, lamp-shells, horseshoe worms, sea stars, brittle and basket stars from WoRMS (13 NEW! checklists) • Other marine invertebrates (10 phyla & 21 classes ) and chordates (4 classes) from URMO • Sea anemones from the Hexacorals • Rotifers from Rotifera database • Entoprocts, cycliophorans, velvet worms, water bears from ITIS • Shrimps, krill, cumaceans, freshwater crabs from ITIS, ETI WBD (Euphausiacea), FWCrabs • Spiders, scorpions, ticks & mites from SpidCat, SalticidDB , ITIS, TicksBase, Mites GSDs, SpmWeb NEW! & CunaxidBase NEW! • Diplopods, centipedes, pauropods and symphylans from SysMyr and ChiloBase • Dragonflies and damselflies from Odonata database • Stoneflies from PlecopteraSF • Cockroaches from BlattodeaSF • Praying mantids from MantodeaSF • Stick and leaf insects from PhasmidaSF • Grasshoppers, locusts, katydids and crickets from OrthopteraSF • Webspinners from EmbiopteraSF NEW! • Some groups of true bugs from ScaleNet, FLOW, COOL, Psyllist, AphidSF , MBB, 3i Cicadellinae NEW!, 3i Typhlocybinae NEW! & MOWD NEW! • Lacewings, antlions, owlflies, fishflies, dobsonflies & snakeflies from LDL Neuropterida • Some beetle groups from the Scarabs , TITAN, WTaxa & ITIS • Fleas from Parhost • Flies, mosquitoes, bots, midges and gnats from Systema Dipterorum, CCW & CIPA • Butterflies and moths from LepIndex, GloBIS (GART), Tineidae NHM, World Gracillariidae • Bees & wasps from ITIS Bees, Taxapad Ichneumonoidea, UCD and ZOBODAT (Vespoidea) • Snails and slugs from AFD (Pulmonata) • brachypods, bristle worms, brittle and basket stars, bryozoans, horseshoe worms, hot-springs shrimps, lamp-shells, mystacocarids, pillbugs, slaters & woodlice, remipedes, ribbon worms, sea stars, tantulocaridans from WoRMS • Fishes from FishBase • Reptiles from TIGR Reptiles • Amphibians, birds and mammals from ITIS

PLUS additional species of many groups from ITIS & NZIB

Structure of the Catalogue of Life

The goal is to list every distinct species in each group of organisms. At present, some groups are globally complete, some are represented by global sectors that are nearing completion, and others are represented by partial sectors. The global sectors, whether complete or not, are provided by selected, peer reviewed global species databases (GSDs - see definition below) in the Species 2000 federation or by equivalent global sectors of ITIS. The partial sectors are supplied principally by ITIS (N America), but also Species Fungorum and the Australian Faunal Directory, with the result that N American species are sometimes the only species represented for these incomplete groups.

Each species is listed with an accepted scientific name, a cited reference and its family and/or position in the hierarchical classification. Additional common names and synonyms may be provided, but these data are not complete, and for some species none may exist. The complete list of fields (known as the "Catalogue of Life Standard Dataset") is given below:

More detailed information about the Standard Dataset is available on the Species 2000 website (http://www.sp2000.org)

Each species is linked via the genus and family to the taxonomic classification. Above the node of attachment of each data sector this classification has been agreed by Species 2000 and ITIS as a practical management tool to provide access to the Catalogue of Life. The top levels of this management classification were set in 2005, as the CoL Taxonomic Classification Edition 1, and used for the six years 2005 - 2010. A second edition has now been prepared by the CoL Hierarchy Panel, and this year Part A is released for the Animalia and Fungi, with Parts B and C still to follow.

The CoL Hierarchy Panel is composed of experts who make recommendations on the higher level classification, led by Michael Ruggiero, Dennis Gordon, Nicolas Bailly and David Nicolson. Please read the draft discussion document "Towards a management hierarchy (classification) for the Catalogue of Life" by Dennis Gordon, appended to this edition of the Annual Checklist (www.catalogueoflife.org/annual-checklist/2011/info/hierarchy).

This CoL Taxonomic Classification Edition 2 Part A re-arranges the Fungi following the 10th edition of the Dictionary of the Fungi (Kirk, Cannon, Minter & Stalper, 2008 - CABI). We are grateful to Paul Kirk for his work with the CoL Hierarchy Panel.

This CoL Taxonomic Classification Edition 2 Part A re-arranges the phyla of Animalia in a new system, following the recommendations of the CoL Hierarchy Panel, with a detailed arrangement carried out by Michael Ruggiero, Dennis Gordon and Nicolas Bailly, with technical assistance from David Nicolson.

Where available from the suppliers, infraspecific taxa such as subspecies and varieties have also been included but this coverage is variable between taxonomic sectors.

Where possible, a web link back to the supplier's own database is provided at the bottom of each species detail page.

CoL Taxon Identifiers (Taxon LSIDs)

The Catalogue of Life programme started to issue permanent CoL Taxon Identifiers in the 2008 Annual Checklist. Every taxon recognised in the Catalogue, including species and higher taxa, is given a globally unique identifier (GUID) using the Life Science Identifier (LSID) system (http://sourceforge.net/projects/lsids).

Where a taxon record remains unchanged in this 2011 edition, it carries the same LSID as in 2009, except that the revision part changes from AC2009 to AC2010. New or changed taxa in the 2011 edition receive completely new LSIDs. This will enable the introduction in the next few years of change tracking between editions, so that relationships to taxa in previous editions are recorded, and web-services to alert users to changes in name, classification, circumscription or data. Technical users are already able to inspect changes in the metadata provided by the CoL LSID Resolution Service, and to build their own services using them. For more information, see http://www.catalogueoflife.org/lsid. LSIDs in the 2011 Annual Checklist have been generated by Richard White, Cardiff University, UK.

Our LSIDs are long strings of symbols intended only for computer usage. However, the user interface does show LSID buttons (click, and the LSID is displayed in full), and the LSID is shown at the base of each Species Details screen. This is done so that a user can copy and paste the LSIDs into other software or services: it is NOT intended for them to be read or typed.

Functionality of the system

• Species (and infraspecific taxa) can be located either by searching by name or by tracking down through the hierarchical classification.
• Searching by name can be done using accepted scientific name, synonym or common name. Automatic synonymic and common name indexing takes the user directly to the species under its accepted name. The search can use part names, or be restricted to complete words.
• Tracking down the tree or classification uses accepted names for taxa.
• On each species details page the relevant higher taxa are listed, and provide a link to the relevant node of the hierarchical classification.
• The species details pages link to the source database, usually showing further information.

This DVD contains the Annual Checklist dataset and the software identical to that used on the Web. The structure of the Annual Checklist database has been optimised for performance with the user interface but is not ideal for importing to other systems. The content may be copied subject to the copyright conditions given on the inside cover of this booklet.

The 2011 Annual Checklist Editors

The Catalogue of Life programme combines the outputs of the Species 2000 programme (led by Frank Bisby from Reading, UK) and the ITIS programme (led by Thomas Orrell from Washington, USA). Assembly and publication of the Annual Checklist is managed by Yuri Roskov in Reading working with colleagues around the world.

Frank Bisby, Species 2000 Executive Director and Team member, at the Species 2000 Secretariat, Reading, UK

Yuri Roskov, Executive Editor at the Species 2000 Secretariat, Reading, UK

Thomas Orrell, ITIS Acting Director, ITIS Secretariat, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, USA

David Nicolson, ITIS Data Development Leader, USGS/Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, USA

Luvie Paglinawan, Annual Checklist Dataset Compiler, at the Species 2000 Philippines Office, FIN, Los-Baños, Philippines

Nicolas Bailly, Taxonomic Editorial Advisor for Marine sectors and Species 2000 Philippines Office Manager at the WorldFish Center, Los-Banos, Philippines

Paul Kirk, Taxonomic Editorial Advisor for Fungi and Chromista sectors at CABI, Egham, UK

Thierry Bourgoin, Taxonomic Editorial Advisor for Insects at the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France

Guy Baillargeon, Taxonomic Editorial Advisor for Plants at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

David Ouvrard, 4D4Life GSD network convener at the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France

Annual Checklist Production Team

Luvie Paglinawan, Annual Checklist Dataset Compiler and Luisa Abucay, Assistant for Annual Checklist Dataset Compiler, at the Species 2000 Philippines Office, FIN, Los-Baños, Philippines

Viktoras Didžiulis, Systems Manager at the Species 2000 Secretariat, Reading, UK

Paul Klinkenberg, Annual Checklist Cover Design and DVD Production at ETI Bioinformatics, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Under coordination of Yuri Roskov at the Species 2000 Secretariat, Reading, UK

Annual Checklist Software Development

Wouter Addink, Leader of the Annual Checklist Software Development and Software Production at ETI Bioinformatics, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Dennis Seijts, Annual Checklist Interface Development at ETI Bioinformatics, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Gideon Gijswijt, Annual Checklist DVD Master and Installation Development at ETI Bioinformatics, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Ruud Altenburg, author of Base Schema Conversion Software at ETI BioInformatics, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

Núria Torrescasana Aloy, former author of the Annual Checklist Software at ETI BioInformatics, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

Richard White, author of the Taxon Matcher Software at Cardiff University, UK

The Annual Checklist Assembly Interface is developed by Luvie Paglinawan and Nicolas Bailly, Species 2000 Philippines Office, Los-Baños, Philippines.